Q. Why are there Hebrew letters on the Mezuzah, and on the case?
A. These three letters which make up one of G-ds names are also an acronym for Shin – Shomer, Daled – Dalsos (or Diras), Yud – Yisroel which means G-d is watching the doors (or homes) of Israel. The Mezuzah protects us from harm’s way
According to Kabala these letters are to be written on the back side of every Mezuzah scroll not on the case, it has however become common practice for it to be put on the cases as well. It is however, not recommended for it to be on the case for fear of G-ds name getting erased or damaged and that is why most cases you will only find a shin and not all three letters on the case.
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